Articles Posted in Criminal Possession of Stolen Property

Published on:

Possessing stolen property in New York is a crime. Its likely surprising to no one – from your second cousin to your criminal defense attorney – that in addition to the theft of property, Petit Larceny or Grand Larceny, when you knowingly possess stolen property you have committed either a misdemeanor or a felony. Without breaking out each and every subsection of Criminal Possession of Stolen Property where certain types of property equate to specific felony crimes, the routine way the NYPD, local or county police, and the District Attorney determine the applicable degree of a Criminal Possession of Stolen Property arrest charge is value based. That means if it the property, no matter what it may be, is less than $1,000.00 it is a misdemeanor and if the value is greater than $1,000.00, $3,000.00, $50,000.00 or $1 million, then the crime is a felony that escalates from an “E” to a “B” respectively.

Well, the above is all great and good, but what if the property you are arrested for possessing was not stolen in the first place? Does it make a difference if you believed it was stolen even though it was not? What about if in fact it was stolen property, but you believed it was not? Why is this worthy of discussion? Because as you can consult with your criminal defense lawyer, should you be charged with any degree – misdemeanor or felony – of Criminal Possession of Stolen property – PL 165.40, PL 165.45, PL 165.50, PL 165.52 or PL 165.54 – and you are either unaware the property was stolen or it in fact was not stolen, then you have a defense to this set of crimes.

Continue reading

Published on:

Depending how aggressive or creative a District Attorney gets, sometimes what is one simple act becomes multiple criminal charges from the onset of an arrest or at some point during the prosecution. While the law allows an Assistant District Attorney in New York to supersede an information (criminal complaint) or present criminal charges to a Grand Jury that were not initially on a felony complaint, when such actions are taken a criminal defense lawyer must be on his or her respective “game.” Why? Some charges may be obvious on their faces but others not so much. Complicating matters, what may seem like a simply case with limited exposure can ultimately involve a crime with potentially significant consequences. People v. Gavrilov, 2015 Slip Op. 51562 (App. Term 2nd Dept. 2015) is such a case where the conduct and the charged crimes did not exactly coalesce. There, the defendant entered a vehicle and stole some property. Charged with Petit Larceny, New York Penal Law 155.25, and Fifth Degree Criminal Possession of Stolen Property, New York Penal Law 165.40, the defendant also found himself facing Third Degree Unauthorized Use of a Vehicle, New York Penal Law 165.05. Although not a more serious offense, a very interesting question was raised. Did prosecutors overreach by charging the defendant with PL 165.05 or does wrongfully entering and stealing from a vehicle also violate the Unauthorized Use of a Motor Vehicle statute?

Continue reading

Published on:

Most people rightfully think a larceny or theft occurs when they wrongfully and without permission steal or take someone’s property. Usually, but not always, that person refuses to return the property or simply doesn’t tell the victim that he or she took it in the first place. Simply, the rightful owner lost his or her television, mobile phone, car, or good old fashion cash forever. However, in New York, a theft or larceny need not be a permanent taking. In fact, it need not be a taking at all in the common way we think about such acts. According to the New York Penal Law and the plethora of cases that analyze and interpret it (please note the shout out to the “Three Amigos”), a police officer can arrest, District Attorney prosecute and judge or jury convict you of a crime if you fail to return property. How you ask? New York Penal Law 155.05(2)(b) specifically addresses how one can be charged with a Petit Larceny or Grand Larceny Crime in New York when one acquires lost property.

Continue reading

Published on:

No, there is not a crime of cell phone theft, iPhone stealing or smart phone heist in the New York Penal Law. However, merely because there is no specific statute addressing cell phones, mobile phones, smart phones and other personal devices such as iPads does not mean there is no crime or crimes that occur when one is stolen. On a base level, whenever you steal anything – from a pen or shoelace to a million dollars in cash or a diamond engagement ring – a larceny has occurred. Irrespective of value, the theft is a Petit Larceny and the possession of the property is Criminal Possession of Stolen Property in the Fifth Degree as set forth in New York Penal Law 155.25 and New York Penal Law 165.40 respectively. These offenses are both class “A” misdemeanors.

Putting behind the misdemeanor crimes the NYPD will arrest you for and a District Attorney will prosecute, the following entry will briefly examine some crimes for cell phone theft routinely seen by New York criminal lawyers and defense attorneys throughout New York City District Attorney’s Offices in Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn and the Bronx as well as other prosecutors’ offices elsewhere in suburban counties such as Westchester, Rockland, Putnam and Dutchess.

Continue reading

Published on:

While most people think of larceny and criminal possession of stolen property in two or three general ways – shoplifting, embezzlement or some scheme to steal money – perception is not reality. As a New York criminal defense attorney and former Manhattan Assistant District Attorney I have personally defended or prosecuted a wide variety of thefts that range from complicated schemes involving multiple people and millions of dollars to incidents as “simple” as a person stealing a laptop from bar or restaurant. In most cases, the dollar amount of the property regardless of its nature or type is the controlling factor as to the severity of the crime. For example, when the value of the property is more than $1,000 then the offense is a Fourth Degree Grand Larceny or Fourth Degree Criminal Possession of Stolen Property pursuant to New York Penal Law 155.30 and 165.45 respectively. Class “E” felonies, these crimes would not be applicable if the dollar amounts were less or more. In those cases the applicable crime to charge could be Petit Larceny or Fifth Degree Criminal Possession of Stolen Property on the lower end and higher degree felony for values exceeding $3,000, $50,000 or $1 million. Similarly, when a theft or larceny involves a specific type of property, such as a credit card, secret scientific material, a firearm or certain vehicles, then the offense is automatically a felony even if the financial threshold has not been met.

Continuing with the vehicle theme, while the following case is not one of those that is based on vehicle type and value as specified in PL 155.30(8) and PL 165.45(5), it is a bit off from the normal context of these types of crimes. Why is it worth blogging about? Because the case represents that whether or not you subjectively believe something has value or your conduct is not an extortion, embezzlement or shoplift, a judge or jury can still convict you for a felony crime. You’ve been warned.

Continue reading

Published on:

When most New York criminal lawyers and every day people think of larceny and theft crimes, there are often a few ways stealing comes to mind. While a theft is a theft – any stealing of property $1,000 or less is a misdemeanor Petit Larceny pursuant to New York Penal Law 155.25 and possession of the items is a misdemeanor of Fifth Degree Criminal Possession of Stolen Property pursuant to New York Penal Law 165.40 – the items stolen can span tremendous distances apart. For example, a “run of the mill” shoplifting at Macys or Century 21 in Manhattan or charging iPhone left out unattended in a Brooklyn restaurant would qualify, can a a person be arrested for or convicted in New York for taking money in exchange for a sale that he or she knows in advance is fraudulent or bogus? What if, for example, a seller agrees to give you an LED television for $800, takes your cash and never returns? Alternatively, what if a seller tells you he is giving you a genuine Coach bag, he is paid, then sells you what is ultimately a knock off? Has a misdemeanor theft or larceny crime been perpetrated? Is this a larceny by trick? Hopefully this blog entry will shed some light on both this question and answer.

Continue reading

Published on:

In New York, like any other state, evidence can be either direct or circumstantial. While it would be easy for a District Attorney’s Office and local police department to observe a theft and larceny related crime first hand, crime, or alleged crime, simply doesn’t work that way. Whether the arrest offense is the taking, a larceny, or the criminal possession, certain actions and statements without direct proof can provide the police with probable cause and the prosecution with proof beyond a reasonable doubt. Although this means of prosecuting crimes in New York is relevant to any offense, the following case reflects how it can directly impact an arrest for Criminal Possession of Stolen Property pursuant to New York Penal Law Article 165.

Continue reading

Published on:

There are very strict and unforgiving laws in New York State. The New York Penal law, when addressing financial crimes, has dollar amount thresholds that upon their breach the crime is enhanced. What this means is that if you steal by any means property valued in excess of $1,000 is an “E” felony of Fourth Degree Grand Larceny (New York Penal Law 155.30). If that amount exceeds $3,000 then it is a “D” felony of Third Degree Grand Larceny (New York Penal Law 155.35). The next thresholds are at $50,000 and $1 million. There are corresponding offenses for  Criminal Possession of Stolen Property (again, it is value based for the most part barring some exceptions so the nature of the property is irrelevant). Not only is there a concern for an accused that he or she can face incarceration in prison – up to four years on an “E” felony and seven years on a “D” felony – there are other concerns for professionals and foreign nationals. Even without stepping foot in a jail, a conviction can end a career or make a person inadmissible in the future. Potentially, for the latter group of individuals, the offense could be an Aggravated Felony. Due to all of these collateral and direct concerns with felony arrests, it is imperative to formulate a plan when accused of these or any crime and your exposure is great. Unfortunately, a scenario played out for a Crotty Saland PC client who was both a physician and a foreign national.

Continue reading

Published on:

In New York, Criminal Possession of Stolen Property fits into five separate categories or degrees when value is considered. These are Fifth Degree Criminal Possession of Stolen Property (New York Penal Law 165.40), Fourth Degree Criminal Possession of Stolen Property (New York Penal Law 165.45), Third Degree Criminal Possession of Stolen Property (New York Penal Law 165.50), Second Degree Criminal Possession of Stolen Property (New York Penal Law 165.52) and First Degree Criminal Possession of Stolen Property (New York Penal Law 165.54). The threshold for determining the value or dollar amount for these crimes are $1,000 or less, greater than $1,000, greater than $3,000, greater than $50,000 and in excess of $1 million respectively. Further, other than Fifth Degree Criminal Possession of Stolen Property, each of these crimes are felony offenses. Putting aside valuation (another issues not addressed here is the means by which courts determine or assess value), the basic language of a Criminal Possession of Stolen Property arrest, misdemeanor complaint or felony indictment, is that the accused knowingly possessed stolen property. Further you must also have the intent to benefit yourself or impede the owner from recovering his or her property whether it is money from a bank account, an antique watch or an iPad.

The question posed here is whether you can be arrested, charged with and ultimately found guilty by a judge or jury for any degree of Criminal Possession of Stolen Property even if you did not actually steal the property, were not present when the property was stolen, had no involvement in the actually taking and were not arrested for and charged with Petit Larceny (New York Penal Law 155.25) or any degree of Grand Larceny? The simple and short answer is “yes.”

Continue reading

Published on:

Fraud arrests are embarrassing. Theft arrests are compromising. Larceny arrests are stigmatizing. Felony arrests in New York? Those can land you in prison. Misdemeanors? By Desk Appearance Ticket or full processing in Central Booking, there is potential for incarceration too. Whether it is a shoplifting arrest or DAT for violating the Petit Larceny statute of New York Penal Law 155.25 or Fifth Degree Criminal Possession of Stolen Property Statute of New York Penal Law 165.40, a fake identification arrest for violating  the Third Degree Criminal Possession of a Forged Instrument statute of New York Penal Law 170.20, a failure to pay a cab fare arrest for violating New York Penal Law 165.15,  or any other crime involving Forgery, Falsifying Business Records, Theft of Services, Scheme to Defraud or Grand Larceny, if you are regulated through FINRA or FDIC, the ramifications can be a “game changer” to your career and livelihood. While you can potentially avoid reporting certain misdemeanor crimes on your Form U4, if you are charged with any felony (even if it is later reduced or resolved in a non-criminal manner) or convicted of the same, you will have to answer for your alleged actions. Even if the offense you are accused if is merely a misdemeanor (“merely” is a relative term as New York does not expunge criminal convictions for these crimes) and the offense involves fraud, forgery, wrongful taking of property or even false statements or omissions, you will be required to report the alleged infraction. This blog entry will not address the substance and definitions of the above crimes (that can be found throughout this blog and the CrottySaland.Com website), but reporting of these arrests and convictions on your U4 and consequences associated with FINRA regulations and those involving FDIC insured banks.

Continue reading